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As of today, very few commercially viable alternatives exist to asphalt which implies their popularity in pavement making. When you own a pavement or constantly use an asphalt pavement, it becomes irritating and somewhat worrisome to have those annoying cracks growing across. This often leaves most of us wondering why in the first place do asphalt pavements crack.
These occurrences are termed asphalt distresses and their reasons are often due to an existent deterioration. The general reasons for these distresses are discussed below:
Like all structural components, the execution of inadequate maintenance practices or repairs over a period of time often leads to further deterioration. Thus, when a tiny crack forms on an asphalt pavement and remains unaddressed, it widens over time into a more pronounced crack that can pose a grave danger.
Wrong pavement base and thickness
Inadequate experience in estimating the right asphalt pavement base and required thickness can lead to the formation of cracks. Estimations of both the live and dead loads should influence both parameters (base and thickness) and lead to a more durable pavement. Also, improper installation can lead to faulty pavements that begin to crack in no time. Take, for example, installing an asphalt pavement as though it is intended to lift a single sedan per time when in essence it is constantly lifting trailers. That pavement would easily develop cracks. By calling a professional paving contractor they will make sure the pavement is the right thickness.
Generally speaking, pavements perform better in some climates than others. Constant rainfall and high temperatures would lead to immense and continuous expansivity on the pavement that would lead to cracking over time. Other conditions that could affect asphalt pavement is the frequency of ice storms within a region.
This is another common cause of asphalt pavement cracking as it occurs when the edges of asphalt roads aren’t properly finished. Although it begins as a little chipping away at the edge of a pavement, if left unattended to, it speedily develops into a full crack web that can lead to further pavement deterioration.
Since stagnant water can be detrimental to asphalt pavement health, it is important to have a system to constantly remove water from its surface. Drainages serve to achieve these purpose as they avoid the seeping of water into the asphalt matrix to weaken it.
This refers to the dislodgement of the surface layer of the asphalt pavement. This is usually due to the lack of adequate adhesion between the asphalt compounds and the aggregates present in the mixture. Over time and if left unattended to, these little surface layers are swept aside, to reveal the less hardened lower layers that crack under constant exposure to the design loads.
The above reasons highlight why pavement cracks occur but there are tons of other microprocessors that occur to ensure cracking occurs and evolves from microcracks into ditches. The main solution to asphalt pavement cracking prevention in a completed pavement is to ensure good maintenance practice and control the loads that ply the pavement.
Construction can be defined as the set of co-related and co-dependent processes involved in assembling or building structures. For a construction project to be successful, it must have a well-designed plan and effective project planning. When thinking about constructing a structure there are a lot of things to keep in mind from the availability of materials, the environmental impact of the construction and the structure itself, budgeting, logistics, legal and safety issues being some.
Construction can be broadly classified into three types which are then sub-divided into other types. This article shall focus on the broad classifications. The three types are
• Building Construction
• Civil/Heavy Construction
• Industrial Construction
Building construction involves the construction or renovation of many essential building blocks including building foundations, columns, walls, floors, roofs, elevator/stairs. Finishing work like painting and plastering, building services like sanitation, electrical work, drainage and water supply, and external work like walls or fences are also considered to be part of this type of construction.
Building construction is broadly divided into three-superstructure, substructure, and plinth. The plinth is the dividing line between the substructure and the superstructure which is the foundation of the building and the building itself respectively. Almost all construction projects will have some common elements to it which include financial considerations, legal considerations, and the design of the structure.
Building construction can be classified further into types I-a, -b, II-a, II-b, III-a, III-b, iv, v-a and v-b. The type of a building will depend on what kind of materials are being used and their flammability. Most common examples of building construction include residential homes, hotels and apartment complexes.
Civil or Heavy construction deals with infrastructure at a local or national level. Examples of such construction are harbours, railroads, bridges, canals, highways and roads. Like previously mentioned this type of construction can also be divided into different types or disciplines which can include structural engineering, environmental engineering, urban engineering, material engineering, and water resources engineering to name a few.
Industrial construction deals with the construction of materials like concrete, chemicals, power, gas, oil etc. There are a few sub-processes which include assembly of heavy equipment and its installation, pipe installations, scaffold erections, etc. This type of construction is employed in various industries which include petroleum, power generation, medicine, Concrete Contractor and chemical production. Highly specialized engineers are required in this industry as they need to be able to take a blueprint from paper to reality. They also need to work closely with other experts in various fields like accountants and mortgage bankers to create a financial management plan to be able to construct the required product or facility. Another important aspect of industrial construction is that they must adhere to all of the building and zoning laws and failure to do so will result in legal repercussions for the business owner. These projects must be designed in a way that they can be completed on time with no extra costs.